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Monday, June 17, 2013

Oracle Interview Questions - Part-1

1. What are the components of physical database structure of Oracle database?
Oracle database is comprised of three types of files. One or more datafiles, two or more redo log files, and one or more control files.

2. What are the components of logical database structure of Oracle database?
There are tablespaces and database’s schema objects.

3. What is a tablespace?
A database is divided into Logical Storage Unit called tablespaces. A tablespace is used to grouped related logical structures together.

4. What is SYSTEM tablespace and when is it created?
Every Oracle database contains a tablespace named SYSTEM, which is automatically created when the database is created. The SYSTEM tablespace always contains the data dictionary tables for the entire database.

5. Explain the relationship among database, tablespace and data file.
Each databases logically divided into one or more tablespaces one or more data files are explicitly created for each tablespace.

6. What is schema?
A schema is collection of database objects of a user.

7. What are Schema Objects?
Schema objects are the logical structures that directly refer to the database’s data. Schema objects include tables, views, sequences, synonyms, indexes, clusters, database triggers, procedures, functions packages and database links.

8. Can objects of the same schema reside in different tablespaces?

9. Can a tablespace hold objects from different schemes?

10. What is Oracle table?
A table is the basic unit of data storage in an Oracle database. The tables of a database hold all of the user accessible data. Table data is stored in rows and columns.

11. What is an Oracle view?
A view is a virtual table. Every view has a query attached to it. (The query is a SELECT statement that identifies the columns and rows of the table(s) the view uses.)

12. Do a view contain data?
Views do not contain or store data.

13. Can a view based on another view?

14. What are the advantages of views?
- Provide an additional level of table security, by restricting access to a predetermined set of rows and        columns of a table.
- Hide data complexity.
- Simplify commands for the user.
- Present the data in a different perspective from that of the base table.
- Store complex queries.

15. What is an Oracle sequence?
A sequence generates a serial list of unique numbers for numerical columns of a database’s tables.

16. What is a synonym?
A synonym is an alias for a table, view, sequence or program unit.

17. What are the types of synonyms?
There are two types of synonyms private and public.

18. What is a private synonym?
Only its owner can access a private synonym.

19. What is a public synonym?
Any database user can access a public synonym.

20. What are synonyms used for?
- Mask the real name and owner of an object.
- Provide public access to an object
- Provide location transparency for tables, views or program units of a remote database.
- Simplify the SQL statements for database users.

21. What is an Oracle index?
An index is an optional structure associated with a table to have direct access to rows, which can be created to increase the performance of data retrieval. Index can be created on one or more columns of a table.

22. How are the indexes update?
Indexes are automatically maintained and used by Oracle. Changes to table data are automatically incorporated into all relevant indexes.

23. What are clusters?
Clusters are groups of one or more tables physically stores together to share common columns and are often used together.

24. What is cluster key?
The related columns of the tables in a cluster are called the cluster key.

25. What is index cluster?
A cluster with an index on the cluster key.