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Tuesday, February 12, 2013

RPM Commands in Linux

Install an RPM Package   

RPM packages have file naming conventions like package-5.1-7.i868.rpm, which include the package name (package), version (2.0), release (4), and architecture (i386). Also notice that RPM understands FTP and HTTP protocols for installing and querying remote RPM files.

rpm -ivh package-5.1-7.i868.rpm
rpm -i ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/RPMS/package-1.0-1.i386.rpm
rpm -i http://oss.oracle.com/projects/firewire/dist/files/kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm

Un-install an RPM Package   

To un-install an RPM package, we use the package name package, not the name of the original package file package-5.1-7.i868.rpm above.

rpm -e package

Upgrade an RPM Package   

To upgrade an RPM package, RPM automatically un-installs the old version of the package package and installs the new package. It is safe to always use rpm -Uvh to install and upgrade packages, since it works fine even when there are no previous versions of the package installed! Also notice that RPM understands FTP and HTTP protocols for upgrading from remote RPM files.

rpm -Uvh package-1.0-2.i386.rpm
rpm -Uvh ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/RPMS/package-1.0-1.i386.rpm
rpm -Uvh http://oss.oracle.com/projects/firewire/dist/files/kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm

Query all Installed Packages   

Use RPM to print the names of all installed packages installed on your Linux system.

rpm -qa

Query an RPM Package   

Querying an RPM package will print the package name, version, and release number of the package package only if it is installed. Use this command to verify that a package is or is not installed on your Linux system.

rpm -q package

Display Package Information   

RPM can display package information including the package name, version, and description of the installed program. Use this command to get detailed information about the installed package.

rpm -qi package

List Files in Installed Package   

The following command will list all of files in an installed RPM package. It works only when the package is already installed on your Linux system.

rpm -ql package

Which package owns a file?   

Use the following command to determine which installed package a particular file belongs to.

rpm -qf /usr/bin/mysql

For example:

# rpm -qf /usr/bin/mysql

List Files in RPM File   

Use RPM to query a (possibly) un-installed RPM file with the use of the the "-p" option. You can use the "-p" option to operate on an RPM file without actually installing anything. This command lists all files in an RPM file you have in the current directory. Also note that RPM can query remote files through the FTP and HTTP protocols.

rpm -qpl kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm
rpm -qpl ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/redhat/RPMS/package-1.0-1.i386.rpm
rpm -qpl http://oss.oracle.com/projects/firewire/dist/files/kernel-2.4.20-18.10.1.i686.rpm

Verify an Installed Package   

Use RPM to list all files that do NOT pass the verify tests (done on size, MD5 signature, etc).

rpm --verify mysql

Where a file does NOT pass, the output is listed using the following codes that signify what failed:

S File size
M Mode (includes permissions and file type)
5 MD5 sum
L Symlink
D Device
U User
G Group
T Mtime

Take for example the following:

# rpm --verify mysql
S.5....T c /etc/my.cnf

This example indicates that file /etc/my.cnf failed on:

File size
MD5 Sum
Modified Time

However, the "c" tells us this is a configuration file so that explains the changes. It should still be looked at to determine what the changes were.
Check an RPM Signature Package   

RPM can be used to check the PGP signature of specified packages to ensure its integrity and origin. Always use this command first before installing a new RPM package on your system. Also, GnuPG or Pgp software must be already installed on your system before you can use this command.

rpm --checksig package